Illustrated Standard
Structure: Hindquarter Assembly

Detail drawing of the correct hindquarter assembly which will provide the Collie with a maximum drive, lift and power for propulsion. The mechanical efficiency depends upon several features of angulation which experience has shown to be correct for the breed.

The hind leg is firmly attached to the skeletal framework through an articulated attachment to the Illium (pelvis). The pelvis should be sloped at an angle of 30 degrees (Angle X) to the Horizontal as shown on the line (a-b). The axis of the Femur (thigh or upper leg) should intersect the pelvic slope at 90 degrees (Angle Y) as indicated by the typical axis line (c-d). The stifle, consisting of two bones, the Tibia and the Fibula, is articulated with the Femur and should be distinctly angled at the "stifle joint." (This is referred to as "Good bend of stifle".) At the lower end, where it meets the hock "joint", the line of the stifle (o-f) should intersect the vertical line of the Hock-Metatarsus (g-h) at an angle of 45 to 50 degrees. (Angle Z). The overall length of the stifle should at least equal the length of the thigh bone, and preferably should exceed it. ("Hocks well let down" is indicated by the shortness of the hock-i.e., close to the ground- in relation to the long stifle bone.)

Leverage exerted by the stifle and a short, straight hock, in action with the tendons and muscles, produces lifting action and, with the Femur the power to move the Collie smoothly and without wasted muscular effort. (Assuming, of course, that the front quarters are also correctly "angulated".) When moving at a fast trot the combined forces reach maximum thrust along line "A" and not over the Center of Gravity "B" as might be supposed.

Line "A" dropped vertically from the Ischium (buttock) should parallel the inside of the hock and bisect the foot. This is the position assumed when the Collie stands "four square" at attention. When at ease, a Collie will often shift one or both feet up to the normal center of gravity. This is not to be confused with a bent or "sickle" hock which is an anatomical defect due to an abnormal curvature of the Metarsal bones below the Os Calcis, "hock joint". A "Sickle Hock" can not be straightened by the dog when in action and is faulty because it opposes the principles of leverage.

Basic Forequarter | Detailed Forequarter | Actual Forequarter 
Basic Hindquarter | Detailed Hindquarter | Actual Hindquarter | Correct Front Superficial Muscles of Front | Skeleton of Front | Correct Rear
 Superficial Muscles of Rear | Skeleton of Rear | Narrow Front 
Front Too Wide | Out At Elbows | "East-West" | "Fiddle-Front" 
Bowed Hocks | "Cow-Hocks" | Weak Rear | Superficial Muscles | Skeleton

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